The 12 Foundation Stones of Revelation 21

The first foundation was jasper; a precious stone of divers colors (some are purple, others blue, others green, and others of the color of brass; Pliny, h. n. 37, 37 (8)): Revelation 4:3; Revelation 21:11, 18f. (But many think (questionably) the diamond to be meant here; others the precious opal; see Riehm, HWB, under the word Edelsteine, 8 and 10; B. D. under the word ; cf. ‘Bible Educator’ 2:352.)

the second, sapphire; (perhaps our lapis lazuli, cf. B. D., under the word ; Riehm, HWB, under the word Edelsteine, 14): Revelation 21:19. (Theophrastus, Dioscorides (?), others; the Sept..)

the third, a chalcedony; aquamarine chalcedony, a precious stone described by Pliny, h. n. 31, 5 (18), 72 (see B. D. (especially the American edition), under the word): Revelation 21:19.

the fourth, an emerald; (but apparently feminine in the earlier writ, cf. Theophrast. lap. 4, 23; in Herodotus its gender cannot be determined; cf. Stephanus Thesaurus, under the word), Latinsmaragdus (A. V. emerald), a transparent precious stone noted especially for its light green color: Revelation 21:19. (From Herodotus down; the Sept.. On the derivation of the word see Vanicek, Fremdwörter, under the word. On its relation to our ’emerald’ (disputed by King, Antique Gems, p. 27ff), see Reihm, HWB, under the word ‘Edelsteine’, 17; Deane in the ‘Bible Educator’, vol. ii., p. 350f.)

The fifth, sardonyx; a sardonyx, a precious stone marked by the red colours of the carnelian (sard) and the white of the onyx

the sixth, sardius; (carnelian) sardius, a precious stone, of which there are two kinds, concerning which Theophrastus, de lapid. 16, 5, § 30, Schneid. edition says, τοῦ γάρ σαρδίου τό μέν διαφανες ἐρυθροτερον δέ καλεῖται θῆλυ, τό δέ διαφανες μέν μελαντερον δέ καίi ἄρσεν, the former of which is called carnelian (because flesh-colored; Hebrew אֹדֶם, the Sept. σάρδιον, Exodus 28:17; Exodus 36:17 (Exodus 39:10); Ezekiel 28:13; ἁιματοεντα σαρδια, the Orphica, de lapid. 16, 5), the latter sard: Revelation 4:3 (Rec. σαρδίνῳ); Revelation 21:20 G L T Tr WH. Hence, the adjective σάρδιος, σαρδια, σάρδιον (from Σάρδεις, cf. Pliny, h. n. 37, 7) sardine namely, λίθος (the full phrase occurs Exodus 35:8 (variant)): Revelation 21:20 Rec. (B. D., see under the words, Sardine, Sardius.)

the seventh, chrysolite; chrysolith, chrysolite, a precious stone of a golden color; our topaz (cf. BB. DD., under the word Chrysolite; especially Riehm, HWB, under the word Edelsteine 5 and 19): Revelation 21:20. (Diodorus 2, 52; Josephus, Antiquities 3, 7, 5; the Sept. for תַּרְשִׁישׁ, Exodus 28:20; Exodus 36:20 (Exodus 39:13); (Ezekiel 1:16 Aq.).)

the eighth, beryl, a precious stone of a pale green color (Pliny, h. n. 37, 5 (20) (i. e. 37, 79)): Revelation 21:20. (Tobit 13:17; neuter βηρύλλιον, equivalent to שֹׁהַם, Exodus 28:20; Exodus 36:20 (Exodus 39:13)). Cf. Winers RWB under the word Edelsteine, 11; (especially Riehm, HWB, ibid. 3 and 12).

the ninth, a topaz; More likely peridot (yellow-green)
topaz, a greenish-yellow precious stone (our chrysolith (see BB. DD., especially Riehm, under the word Edelsteine 18)): Revelation 21:20 (Diodorus, Strabo; the Sept. for פִּטְדָה, Exodus 28:17; Exodus 36:17 (Exodus 39:10); Ezekiel 28:13. The Greek writings more commonly use the form τόπαζος).

the tenth, a chrysoprasus; chrysoprase, a precious stone in color like a leek, of a translucent golden-green (cf. BB. DD., under the word; Riehm, HWB, under the word, Edelsteine 6): Revelation 21:20.

the eleventh, a jacinth; hyacinth, the name of a flower (Homer and other poets; Theophrastus), also of a precious stone of the same color, i. e. dark-blue verging toward black (A. V. jacinth (so R. V. with marginal reading sapphire); cf. B. D., under the word ; Riehm, under the word Edelsteine 9) (Philo, Joseph, Galen, Heliodorus, others; Pliny, h. n. 37, 9, 41): Revelation 21:20.

the twelfth, an amethyst. amethyst, a precious stone of a violet and purple color (Exodus 28:19; according to Phavorinus so called διά τό ἀπείργειν τῆς μέθης (so Plutarch, quaest. conviv. iii. 1, 3, 6)): Revelation 21:20. (Cf. B. D. under the word.)